Why do we think our beliefs are different from the majority?

Pluralistic Ignorance,


What is Pluralistic Ignorance?

Pluralistic ignorance is when we believe that our private views are different from those of the majority. This often leads them to suppress their own beliefs and behaviors to conform to what they perceive as the societal norm.  

Where this bias occurs

Imagine attending a biology lecture at college. The professor presents a complex theory and then asks if everyone understands. You glance around, seeing all your peers nodding or remaining silent, giving the impression of comprehension. Although you don’t fully grasp the concept, you refrain from raising your hand, not wanting to be the only one who didn't get it. As the class proceeds, little do you realize that most of your silent peers are just as confused as you are. 

In this instance of pluralistic ignorance, many students falsely believe that they ‘re the only one struggling to understand, when in reality, several shared the same confusion. But since no one wanted to stand out from the perceived group comprehension, everyone conformed to the silent consensus. The mistaken assumption that others understood the material prevented students from seeking necessary clarifications to master the material and perform well on their upcoming exams.

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Individual effects

On the personal level, the effects of pluralistic ignorance are already profound. We may begin to feel isolated, believing we are alone in our perspective.1 Suppressing our genuine beliefs or feelings can take a toll on our self-esteem. We mistakenly believe we are the outliers because there is something wrong with our outlook, making us feel out of touch with those surrounding us. For instance, college students tend to overestimate that they are more uncomfortable with alcohol practices on campuses than their peers, making them feel isolated from social gatherings.2

Beyond its emotional impact, the practical implications of pluralistic ignorance include missed opportunities. If we do not voice our true thoughts or feelings, we may let go of chances to learn, grow, and change, just like students who refrain from raising their hands during the lecture. Our hesitancy may even hold us back from interviewing for a new position, viewing all the other applicants as more confident and qualified—when, in reality, they are just as nervous as we are. 

Systemic effects

When we zoom out and consider broader societal implications, pluralistic ignorance has significant effects on communities and organizations at large.3 If most people silently disagree with a norm but operate under the impression that everyone else supports it, outdated or even harmful practices can continue unchallenged. When cultural norms are designed based on these perceived majority views rather than the genuine consensus, they may not resonate with or serve the community's true wants or needs.

A poignant example is the "overwork" culture prevalent in many corporate sectors. While employees privately may believe in the importance of work-life balance and the dangers of burnout, the open office environment often tells a different story. Colleagues staying late, not taking full breaks, and consistently appearing busy might create the illusion that everyone endorses and thrives in a culture of constant work. This silent consensus can become a self-perpetuating cycle across the organization. Leadership might misread this as genuine enthusiasm and commitment, shaping company policies that favor longer working hours and fewer breaks. Overall, pluralistic ignorance results in a company culture that perpetuates what employees don’t want, rather than prioritizing what they prefer.

How it affects product

In the world of products, particularly in the fast-paced domain of consumer goods, the impact of pluralistic ignorance can be significant. Companies often base their product designs, marketing strategies, and even sales pitches on what they think is popular in demand. However, if this perceived trend is based on a misconception—where people only appear to prefer a certain feature or design just because they think others do—the product might not resonate with the actual desires of the majority.

Imagine a scenario where a company presents a new smartphone during a focus group discussion. If a few dominant voices express strong approval and others, despite reservations, stay silent because they believe they're in the minority, the company may proceed with a flawed design. As a result, the product may underperform after hitting the market, leading to wasted resources and missed opportunities. This is a clear instance where the silence driven by pluralistic ignorance can misguide businesses into making decisions that don't align with true consumer preferences.

Pluralistic ignorance and AI

As artificial intelligence (AI) systems rely heavily on input data and human understanding, they aren't immune to the pitfalls of pluralistic ignorance. The development and refinement of machine learning requires collaboration between programmers, data scientists, and industry experts. If a flawed assumption is shared without question, AI can perpetuate and even amplify that mistake. 

Consider the creation of a financial forecasting AI. As it's being developed, there's a consensus on the algorithm's approach, even though many team members privately question certain aspects of its predictive modeling. Afraid of appearing contrarian or less knowledgeable, these individuals refrain from vocalizing their hesitations. The team moves forward in training the AI under this potentially flawed premise before it gets deployed in the market. Instead of optimizing financial forecasts as intended, the software starts making consistently off-mark predictions, leading to significant economic implications. Had the team members discussed their reservations openly, a more accurate and effective AI might have emerged, underscoring the crucial role of open dialogue in AI development.

Why it happens

Pluralistic ignorance arises from a complex interplay between social dynamics, cognitive processes, and environmental factors. Delving into its origins can offer a clearer picture of why it’s so pervasive and how it continues to influence modern society.

Our need for social conformity

At our core, we are social beings. Evolution has conditioned us to seek acceptance within our group, as it often increased our chances for survival.4 This need for social conformity means we often gauge our behaviors and beliefs based on perceived societal norms. If everyone appears to be thinking or behaving in a particular way, it's natural to assume that straying from that norm might lead to ostracization. 

Misreading non-verbal cues

Humans, by nature, are adept at reading facial expressions, body language, and other non-verbal cues. However, this skill is not without error. In a pivotal study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,5 researchers first noted that individuals often misinterpret others' non-verbal signals. For instance, a person might assume someone's silence as agreement, when in reality, it's a sign of internal disagreement or doubt. Or someone might laugh at a joke they find offensive because they don't want to appear overly sensitive. These subtle misunderstandings can accumulate, leading a group to believe there's consensus when there's actually significant internal discord.

Ambiguous situations  

In ambiguous situations where the “correct” behavior or response isn't clear, we often look to others for cues. However, if everyone is looking to each other, a false consensus can quickly emerge. For example, in a meeting introducing a new policy,, if the implications are unclear, most might look around to gauge reactions. If no one raises concerns (even if many have them internally), the group might wrongly assume everyone else is on board.

Fear of repercussions

In many organizational settings, voicing dissent can have tangible negative consequences on one’s career. Whether it's the fear of retribution from superiors, the risk of losing social capital, or concern about being labeled as “difficult,” the potential repercussions of breaking from perceived group norms can be daunting. This was emphasized in a study from The European Journal of Social Psychology,6 which found that individuals often mute their concerns or disagreements, especially in hierarchical structures, due to perceived risks.

In essence, pluralistic ignorance stems from a blend of evolutionary instincts, the intricacies of human interaction, and complex environments. Recognizing these underlying causes is the first step in finding ways to address and mitigate its effects.

Why it is important

At its core, pluralistic ignorance represents a fundamental misalignment between what individuals privately believe and what they perceive others to believe. This disconnect can restrain open dialogue, hinder effective decision-making, and foster an environment where misconceptions overshadow truth and transparency. 

When individuals believe their views are out of line with the majority, they might suppress valuable insights or innovative ideas out of fear of being ostracized. Moreover, in situations where collective action is required, such as rallying around a common cause or addressing a cultural challenge, pluralistic ignorance can lead to apathy and inaction. By recognizing and addressing this phenomenon, communities and organizations can create a more inclusive environment where diverse voices are heard and valued.

How to avoid it

Combatting pluralistic ignorance begins with self-awareness and deliberate steps toward fostering genuine communication. Here are some strategic approaches we can take to better express ourselves and discover what the true majority opinion is.

Reflect on personal beliefs

By regularly taking the time to introspect and clarify one's values and beliefs, we can be more resilient against societal pressures to conform. Tools like journaling or meditation can aid this introspective journey. When we ground ourselves in our convictions, we’re less likely to misinterpret silence or conformity as agreement and more inclined to express their genuine beliefs.

Seek direct communication

Often, our assumptions about others' beliefs are just that—assumptions. By engaging in direct conversations, asking questions, and actively listening, we can access a more accurate representation of others' views. For instance, if everyone in a meeting remains silent on a contentious topic, prompting a round-table discussion where each member shares their opinion can break the cycle of assumed agreement.

Encourage a culture of feedback

Cultivating an environment, whether at home, school, or work, where feedback is not only welcomed but valued can be pivotal. We should try our best to make people feel comfortable expressing dissenting views or challenging prevailing norms. However, in situations where voicing dissenting opinions might have repercussions, anonymous feedback mechanisms can offer an accurate gauge of group sentiment. Whether it's an anonymous survey in a corporate setting or a confidential feedback box in a community space, these tools can provide insights into the actual consensus.

By adopting these strategies, individuals not only foster a clearer understanding of their surroundings but also help build communities where transparency and genuine consensus are valued over silent conformity.

How it all started 

Pluralistic ignorance can be traced back to societal pressures present in ancient civilizations, which often prioritized conformity over individual thought. However, its formal study as a psychological phenomenon traces back to the early 20th century when researchers started noticing discrepancies between personal beliefs and public behavior in group settings. The term itself was introduced in the 1920s  by American psychologist Floyd Allport and his students Daniel Katz and Richard Schanck.7 They used pluralistic ignorance to describe situations in which a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but incorrectly assume that most others accept it based on overt behavior. Later on, Floyd pioneered a number of studies exploring how social conformity leads to stereotyping and prejudices, especially surrounding the rising antisemitism during World War II.8  

The 1970s experienced a re-emerging empirical interest in pluralistic ignorance through a political lens, such as racial relations and voting preferences in light of the Civil Rights Movement.9 Much of the research was conducted on college campuses, investigating how students often wrongly assumed that their personal preferences did not align with their peers. For instance, a study by Deborah Prentice and Dale Miller discovered that most students’ comfort level with alcohol consumption was often much lower that what was perceived as “normal.”2 More recent research has discovered a similar pattern with casual sex: on average, students rate their peers as being more comfortable with hooking up than themselves.10

Example 1 – The bystander effect and the murder of Kitty Genovese

One of the most commonly cited historical examples of pluralistic ignorance in history revolves around the tragic case of Kitty Genovese.11 On March 27, 1964, Genovese was murdered outside her apartment in Queens, New York. The headlines that arose from this incident were startling: it was initially reported that 38 witnesses had either seen or heard the attack from their bedroom windows but did nothing to intervene or even called the police.

While subsequent investigations revealed the number of active witnesses to be far fewer and that some did try to help, the story had already taken root in the public consciousness. This incident spurred social psychologists Bibb Latané and John Darley to investigate the phenomenon now known as the bystander effect.12 Through a series of experiments, they deduced that when multiple people witness an emergency, individuals are less likely to intervene, mistakenly assuming someone else will take responsibility. Part of this hesitancy arises from pluralistic ignorance: people gauge the reactions of others to determine if an event is truly an emergency. If no one else appears alarmed, individuals may downplay the severity of the situation or assume they're misinterpreting it. This conformity can lead to tragic results.

Example 2 – The spiral of silence in social media

In the digital age, pluralistic ignorance manifests itself virtually, especially in the world of social media. A study conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2014 delved into the "spiral of silence" observed on platforms like Facebook and Twitter.13

The study found that users were less likely to share their views on a controversial subject (in this case, the revelations about U.S. government surveillance by Edward Snowden) on social media if they believed their audience disagreed with them. Even in offline scenarios like personal conversations, knowing that friends on social media held opposing views made individuals less likely to discuss the topic.

In part, we can attribute this digital spiral of silence to pluralistic ignorance. Users often overestimate the prevalence of opposing views on social platforms and, in doing so, feel isolated or in the minority with their perspective. They then self-censor, thinking they're in the minority or fearing social repercussions. This cycle perpetuates itself, leading to a muted discussion and a skewed perception of public opinion on critical issues.

The study serves as a potent reminder of how pluralistic ignorance has evolved in the face of technology. In an era where social platforms play an influential role in shaping discourse, recognizing and challenging our assumptions about collective sentiment becomes more important than ever before.


What it is

Pluralistic ignorance describes when we believe our private views differ from the majority, causing us to suppress them and conform to what we perceive is the social norm. 

Why it happens

Pluralistic ignorance results from a combination of three factors. First, our evolutionary instincts push us to conform in social situations. Second, cognitive errors while interpreting nonverbal cues cause us to misinterpret disagreement as consensus. Finally, environmental dynamics such as ambiguity and fear of repercussions prevent us from speaking up about our opinions.

Example 1 – The bystander effect and the murder of Kitty Genovese

In 1964, many eyewitnesses failed to report the murder of Kitty Genovese, leading researchers Latané and Darley to propose the bystander effect, where individuals are less likely to intervene in emergencies because they assume someone else will. We can, in part, attribute the bystander effect to pluralistic ignorance, which hinders bystanders’ ability to gauge the urgency of a situation.

Example 2 – The spiral of silence in social media

A study conducted by the Pew Research Center discovered a “spiral of silence,” where users on social media are less likely to voice their true opinions if they perceive they don’t align with the majority. This research serves as a potent reminder of how technology can amplify pluralistic ignorance.

How to avoid it

We can avoid pluralistic ignorance by taking steps to better express our views and investigate what the true majority opinion is. This includes solidifying our personal beliefs ahead of time, seeking direct lines of communication, and creating an environment where feedback is not only accepted but encouraged.

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Social Norms

Pluralistic ignorance is just one example of a social norm, which are the informal rules that guide our behavior within society. Although social norms provide our interactions with structure, many of them can become problematic when left unquestioned. Read this article to learn more about other types of social norms, and how to question them in our everyday lives.


  1. Jordan, A. H., Monin, B., Dweck, C. S., Lovett, B. J., John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2011). Misery has more company than people think: Underestimating the prevalence of others’ negative emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(1), 120–135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167210390822
  2. Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(2), 243–256. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.2.243
  3. Halbesleben, J. R. B., Wheeler, A. R., & Buckley, M. R. (2007). Understanding pluralistic ignorance in organizations: application and theory. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(1), 65-83. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/02683940710721947/full/html 
  4. Coultas, J., van Leeuwen, E. (2015). Conformity: Definitions, Types, and Evolutionary Grounding. In: Zeigler-Hill, V., Welling, L., Shackelford, T. (eds) Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology. Evolutionary Psychology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12697-5_15
  5. Noller, P. (1980). Misunderstandings in marital communication: A study of couples' nonverbal communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1135–1148. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0077716
  6. Jetten, J., Hornsey, M. J., Spears, R., Haslam, S. A., & Cowell, E. (2010). Rule transgressions in groups: The conditional nature of newcomers' willingness to confront deviance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(2), 338-348. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.627
  7. O’Gorman, H. J. (1986). The discovery of pluralistic ignorance: An ironic lesson. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 22(4), 333-347. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6696(198610)22:4<333::AID-JHBS2300220405>3.0.CO;2-X
  8. Morse, N. C., & Allport, F. H. (1952). The causation of anti-Semitism: An investigation of seven hypotheses. The Journal of Psychology, 34(2), 197-233.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1952.9916118 
  9. Shamir, J., & Shamir, M. (1997). Pluralistic Ignorance Across Issues and Over Time: Information Cues and Biases. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 61(2), 227–260. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2749551
  10. Lambert, T. A., Kahn, A. S., & Apple, K. J. (2003). Pluralistic ignorance and hooking up. Journal of sex research, 40(2), 129–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490309552174
  11. A&E Television Networks. (2021, May 21). Kitty Genovese. History.com. https://www.history.com/topics/crime/kitty-genovese  
  12. Latane, B., & Darley, J. M. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10(3), 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0026570
  13. Hampton, K.N., Rainie, L., Lu, W., Dwyer, M., Shin, I., & Purcell, K. (2014). “Social Media and the ‘Spiral of Silence.’ Pew Research Center, Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/08/26/social-media-and-the-spiral-of-silence/

About the Authors

Dan Pilat's portrait

Dan Pilat

Dan is a Co-Founder and Managing Director at The Decision Lab. He is a bestselling author of Intention - a book he wrote with Wiley on the mindful application of behavioral science in organizations. Dan has a background in organizational decision making, with a BComm in Decision & Information Systems from McGill University. He has worked on enterprise-level behavioral architecture at TD Securities and BMO Capital Markets, where he advised management on the implementation of systems processing billions of dollars per week. Driven by an appetite for the latest in technology, Dan created a course on business intelligence and lectured at McGill University, and has applied behavioral science to topics such as augmented and virtual reality.

Sekoul Krastev's portrait

Dr. Sekoul Krastev

Sekoul is a Co-Founder and Managing Director at The Decision Lab. He is a bestselling author of Intention - a book he wrote with Wiley on the mindful application of behavioral science in organizations. A decision scientist with a PhD in Decision Neuroscience from McGill University, Sekoul's work has been featured in peer-reviewed journals and has been presented at conferences around the world. Sekoul previously advised management on innovation and engagement strategy at The Boston Consulting Group as well as on online media strategy at Google. He has a deep interest in the applications of behavioral science to new technology and has published on these topics in places such as the Huffington Post and Strategy & Business.

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