Why do we better remember items at the beginning or end of a list?

What is the Serial Position Effect?

The serial position effect describes how our memory is affected by the position of information in a sequence. It suggests that we best remember the first and last items in a series and find it hard to remember the middle items.

Why do we remember information that we attach significance to better than information we repeat?

What is the levels of processing effect?

The levels of processing effect is based on the idea that the way in which information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The levels of processing model counters the idea that mere repetition helps us retain information long-term. Instead, it suggests that information that is encoded on a deeper level, through meaningful association, is easier to remember.

Why do we think the good old days were so good?

What is Rosy Retrospection?

Rosy retrospection refers to our tendency to recall the past more fondly than the present, all else being equal. It is a cognitive bias that runs parallel with the concept of nostalgia, though the latter does not always directly imply a biased recollection. The phrase stems from the English idiom, “rose-tinted glasses,” where people see things as better than they were.

Why we forget where are memories come from, and thereby lose our ability to distinguish the reality or likelihood of each memory.

What is Source Confusion?

Source confusion, also know as source misattribution or unconscious transference, is a type of memory error. It occurs when someone does not remember where certain memories come from.

Why do we tend to think that things that happened recently are more likely to happen again?

What is the availability heuristic?

The availability heuristic describes our tendency to use information that comes to mind quickly and easily when making decisions about the future.

Availability Heuristic

Why do we forget information that we just looked up?

What is the Google Effect?

The Google effect, also known as digital amnesia, is the tendency to forget information that is readily available through search engines like Google. We do not commit this information to our memory because we know that this information is easy to access online.

Why do we see unpredictable events as predictable after they occur?

What is the Hindsight Bias?

The hindsight bias is our tendency to look back at an unpredictable event and think it was easily predictable. It is also called the ‘knew-it-all-along’ effect.

Hindsight Bias

Why do we have trouble thinking outside the box?

What is Functional Fixedness?

Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that impacts an individual’s ability to be creative. Functional fixedness is commonly used to describe why an individual develops an inability to use an object in more ways than it is traditionally intended to be used, as function fixedness impairs their creativity. Functional fixedness is a phenomenon found in problem-solving psychology and affects an individual’s ability to innovate and be creative when solving challenges.1